This project will develop new mixes that use boot ash to produce cement-less concrete or fine aggregate for concrete for precast applications of the construction industry resulting in significant environmental benefits.


  • Researchers have developed the optimum mix of materials for the end product (using bottom ash as a precursor and potassium based activator solutions for geopolymerization)


Researchers have focused on choosing optimum content of different precursors with alkaline liquid combination and parameters that affects the mechanical strength of the matrix.  Canadian team members have developed the optimum mix using potassium silicate based activator solutions while Indian team members are developing the mix using Sodium silicate based activator solutions.


Growth of cities has forced relocation of quarries and other sites for extraction of fine aggregates (sand) to rural areas in India. Combined with this is dumping of industrial wastes in rural sites creating a major environmental challenge. This has necessitated the immediate need to recycle materials and incorporate high volumes of industrial wastes in concrete without jeopardizing its quality and durability. For decades the focus has been on use of fly-ash to replace part of cement in concrete. In 2011-12 roughly only 54% of the total fly-ash produced (66.5 million tonnes) was utilized in India, thus still leaving behind huge volumes unused. To make the situation worse the current consumption of coal in India is expected to triple (>2100 million tonnes) by 2031-2032. From this projected consumption about 75% is expected to be used for power generation that results in about 20% bottom ash. Since the use of bottom ash in the construction industry is quite limited, dealing with this industrial waste is now posing to be the next major challenge in India. This proposed project will focus on developing mixes that utilizes bottom ash for producing both cement-less concrete and also as fine aggregate in concrete. A Geopolymer mix will be developed exclusively for the precast industry. The focus of this project will be on implementation of this material as a low-cost alternative for rural pavements in India. Pavers constructed using theism aerial will be used in the Canadian environment to create permeable landscapes in urban environments.

Project Team

Dr. Rishi Gupta, University of Victoria
Dr. Urmil Dave, Institute of Technology, Nirma University


University of Victoria
IIT, Nirma University
Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd.
Universal Enterprise (India)

Current Number of Students: 7

Key Outcomes

Presentations: 1